John Lynch

QR codes as we know them are dead

Five years ago I ran a QR (short for Quick Response) campaign in the Tokyo underground targeting IT line managers, CIOs and COOs . Considering the funds and time we put into the campaign, the target audience, the knowledge that audience had of what QR codes were and the high proliferation of rich phones relative to the target audience, the results were impressive. Lots of activity on the site with the downloadable paper we were pushing exceeding downloads by 100%. I tried again in Sydney two years and the response was a flat line, so at that point I decided to shelve QR codes until there use grew to come close to Japan. Five years on and back from Japan, QR codes are everywhere, what happened in the West?.

death o QR codesIn japan QR codes are recognised by over 90% of Japanese mobile users and used by over 50% of them for fast and easy access on the move to encoded information on the internet. More people in Japan now surf the web from a mobile phone than from a PC and QR codes are found everywhere in advertising, on product packaging, at vending machines and even on tomb stones (see pic).

This proliferation in Japan was helped by having a ‘de facto’ industry standard for mobile barcode technology. 3Gvision's barcode reader, now called i-nigma was developed almost a decade ago to be pre-installed in handsets supplied by all of Japan's major mobile manufacturers. It was built in collaboration with them, to the specification of the Japanese network operators. As a result, this barcode reader has become the standard for camera phones in Japan, present in over 80 million handsets, with over 90% market share.

We have been a lot slower in the ‘west’, but its looks on the surface like QR codes are finally been accepted, well by marketers anyway. This may be on the back of trends highlighted in an Experian study that describes the rise of ‘handset hagglers’.  These are consumers who use their mobiles to compare prices and get reviews before buying. The research showed that 10% of UK shoppers use their mobile in-store to check prices of goods elsewhere, before buying. For those who earn more than £70,000, this rises to 20%.

Higher incomes suggest smarter phones and I suspect people with smart phones may be more aware of QR codes than those with bricks. Smart phones are becoming main stream so with the proliferation of smart phones and with 50 free Apps available with reader and metadata browser URI redirection capability, you would think QR readers are on the verge of a revolution?

Well Google doesn’t think so for now agyway. Android OS supports QR codes by natively including ZXing on some models, but this may change soon. Google have stopped pushing QR codes, which used to be a key part of the Google Places launch. and are exploring new ways to enable customers to quickly and easily find information about local businesses from their mobile phones.

It seems that the company wants to test out Near Field Communications (NFC). Not only can NFC do what QR can, but the technology can also be used as a contactless card and transfer information from peer to peer. Instead of having to use your smart phone camera to read the QR barcode, persons with NFC-enabled devices just tap their phone against the target, and the information is transferred. There is also talk of using the technology to allow consumers to purchase products at retail stores using their smart phones. The phone’s NFC technology would simply store the shopper’s credit card information. According to Business Insider, NFC could also be used in personal ID’s or driver’s licenses, keys, and to exchange phone numbers and other contact information between mobile phones with minimal typing.

Google is already supporting NFC chips in Android phones such as the Nexus S and is expected to roll out tests of wave-and-pay systems at stores in New York City and San Francisco. This is because they see the importance of mobile as a gateway between the physical and the digital world.

All of which supports the Booz Allen study that mobile will will influence up to $110B in sales in Europe and $230B in US this year (2011). A fact not missed by Microsoft who introduced it’s ‘Tag’in 2009.  This was positioned firmly as an alternative to the QR code and is based on the company's self-developed High Capacity Color Barcode (HCCB) standard, in an effort to establish the format through emerging mobile tagging markets in the west. Unlike most popular 2D barcodes, which use black-and-white square pixels, HCCBs are based on colors in a triangle-based arrangement. In addition it can handle long URLs and allow for content to be dynamically changed. The creator of the Tag can control to which web page a Tag can be directed to. Tags can be one quarter the size of other two dimensional. It is also optimized for both print and video display and allows for better analytics. It still a 2D bar code but it seems to be QR 2.0. We haven’t seen them so much in the UK, but they appear to have a strong presence in the US with 3 billion tags printed in the last 6 months alone.

Some industry experts predict that Google’s entrance alone into the fray will finally render QR codes generally obsolete, in the west at least. The war could move to a different level completly if Nokia strongly support MS Tags. As more people buy Android NFC-enabled smartphones, NFC will meet HCCB head-on in a fight to become the preferred embedded digital advertisement tool for marketers. After so many years of pushing QR codes the smart money, you would think, would back something new.

 

Some further discussions on LinkedIN

Discussion on Digital Media UK & IRL Group HERE

Discussion on ANZ Digital Media LinkedIn Group HERE


COMMENTS

Posted by Gabrielle Laine-Peters, 18 April 2011

Some really good points here. I see QR codes all over the place in the US. On a recent trip to Cape Town, South Africa they were also being used widely. Digitat screen displays in shop windows, QR codes that changed daily/hourly with discounts and offers.

Posted by James, 20 April 2011

I see a lot of QR codes here in Italy. Mostly, in magazines and on billboards but I think there's still some life left in this format. NFC will probably replace QR in the future but I think it will take a while to happen. QR is just too easy for anyone to print and use.

Posted by Simon Balmer, 20 April 2011

Great article on QR codes. However I must admit I do not agree that QR codes are on the way out. I still see the amazing potential for QR codes to connect mobile and the web. Frankly I think they are a great simple solution. It all comes down to simplicity and mass acceptance and I am not sure newer technologies will combat this. Looking at Microsoft TAG, they have retarded the growth of QR for marginal benefit (to marketers not end users).

Yes, QR codes are relatively basic but represent a great solution to getting the ‘real’ world on line and interacting with traditional media. Sometimes basic/simple solutions flourish in the mass market. Eg. Look at the continued growth of SMS use despite smartphone growth.

With a little more support QR Codes still have the potential to be a fantastic tool. Seeing more and more here in Aus and with a bit more support could flourish for a few years yet.

Posted by Daryl Wallace , 21 April 2011

To see how the usage of QR code as a search term to appreciate it's rapid maturing see here

http://www.google.com/trends?q=QR+CODE+&ctab=0&geo=us&geor=all&date=all

I think this graph demonstrates the uptake in the US. Europe is probably on par.

Heidi Cohen has a good article on how to track http://heidicohen.com/qr-code-metric/

Besides smartphone penetration rates, the real stumbling block is a lack of maturity when it comes to managing cross-channel customer relationships. Cross-channel experience management is on the radar for most innovators as the rate of returns on this approach are proving formidable as e-commerce is taken out of its limiting quarantine, c

Brookstones integration of cross-channel management with ATG and QR-codes is one example while other platforms such as Hybris are coming with QR-code management integrated into their solution.

The futures bright for QR codes, but not as bright as NFC's capability for replacing money.

Posted by MIke, 21 April 2011

I found it an interesting, detailed article. Yet, like Morrie, I don't believe there's any resistance in the US. QR codes first seemed to reach 'common ground' about 18 months ago, appearing more or less regularly in periodicals like Fast Company and Wired magazines.

This month, instead of finding them sprinkled lightly through a couple trendy magazines, I find them embedded in a 'lot' of advertisements. Not only are they in FC and Wired, I'm finding them in -all- my magazines. In the past 3 months alone it seems like they've really, finally, taken off.

Like the US deployment of other mobile technologies, I think we are simply behind the rest of the world. Again.

Posted by Dean Collins, 22 April 2011

John,

Normally i agree with what you write, if not support, but you are wrong in so many places in this article i have to reply.

1/ QR codes were not a success in japan because they had a common reader, they were a success because the QR was a defined standard which anyone could build their own reader/publisher.

Inigma may have been a good reader in japan once upon a time but the current android version they have is crap in comparison.


2/ Yes google may have been supporting QR codes at one stage and yes they have said they want to move to NFC - but the people they hired to handle their QR efforts failed terribly. Their implementation/tools they generated were mediocre at best.

As we've seen before google fail at 9 out of 10 but their reputation is built on the 1 in 10 success.

Regardign NFC its a pipedream, it's like saying i dont like the current crop of cars...so i'm going to wait for a flying car.

3/ Just because "your" campaign in Australia failed doesnt mean that you were too early-whether the interface point was a URl or a QR code "your" campaign was lacklustre. Please call it the way it was.

4/ Telstra blew their QR opportunities and very few other australian companies of their size tried to piggyback. The fact telstra marketing material at one stage said Telstra had some special sauce/advantages confused the marketig people (yet again another example of western versus japanese).

5/ Booz Allen as a reference point sounds good but if you've ever read one of their studies..... please - dont quote them again. People use the BAH name like they used to use IBM when they werent comfortable calling their own decisions).

6/ MsTags are a disaster waiting to happen. None of the "technical" points you raised about their advantages are correct (eg QR codes can do the same). I'm a microsoft user but MsTags arent even worth talking about.

Anyone reading this and still confused check out http://www.Cognation.net/QR for straight forward advice on how to take advantage of QR codes.

Cheers,
Dean

Posted by John Lynch, 25 April 2011

Hi Dean, thanks for the extensive comments, i would normally bow to your expertise in these matters but i think you are being a bit harsh in some of your criticism. Taking your first point that I am wrong in so many places i notice that you point only point out two in particular (points 1 and 6)

On point 1. You said that the success in japan was due to a defined standard that anyone could build their own reader/publisher. I said ..proliferation in Japan was helped by having a de facto industry standard for mobile barcode technology. I went on to mention that 3Gvision now known as inigma was a pre-installed reader in handsets supplied by all of Japan's major mobile manufacturers. It was built in collaboration with them, to the specification of the Japanese network operators. Is this not the same thing? Again it was a standard in readers then, i did not mentioned that its still the best reader today.

On point 6 regarding MS tags. You said that none of the "technical" points you raised about their advantages are correct. I said that MS tags were built on the company's self-developed High Capacity Color Barcode (HCCB) standard and that HCCBs are based on colors in a triangle-based arrangement. Yes the code works in monochrome but is the statement not true? As for the other features i took them from multiple souses including off the Microsoft Tag site - http://tag.microsoft.com/business/overview.aspx ,
http://www.istartedsomething.com/20090108/microsoft-tag-microsofts-own-2d-barcode/ and
http://blogs.msdn.com/b/tag/

On your other comments
2. You say NFC is a pipe dream for Google. Fair enough but this is your opinion, as are your reasons why Google is a success story.
3. On using my QR campaign as an example. This is fair enough criticism as i should balance it with successful case studies. As mentioned above is there a key extensive case study i could be directed to?
4. I agree that Telstra blew it with QR codes and tried to give the impression they owned it.
5, On using Booz Allen as a reference, they are around since 1926 and have revenue in excess of $5 billion so hardly a fly by night operation. There study was relevant to the size of the EU and US markets."

One thing i would add is that i dont think QR codes are a bad technology, or have I any interest in seeing them go down, i just think they were badly marketed and missed their chance.

Posted by not a QR lover, 26 April 2011

Couldn't agree more, there was and still is so much hype ref QR codes, but no real success stories that spring to mind. If they are not dead, they should be

Posted by YouScan.me, 27 April 2011

Hello,

we believe that QR codes will make the connection between offline and online worlds easier. That’s why we created our QR code generator with social features – YouScan.me. You can add all your info like Facebook profile or f

Posted by Kevin Bassett, 1 May 2011

QR v NFC: I agree, for slightly different reasons; http://www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/78/59024.html

Posted by VC, 12 June 2011

I have a different opinion:

1. NFC tags will ALWAYS be more expensive than QR codes. You can't compete electronic tag with printed paper in terms of cost.
2. Microsoft tag is proprietary. Till they make it open, there won't be widespread adaptation.
3. People are inherently afraid of RFID technology. So NFC has perception problem.

My 2c.

Posted by Douglas McDonald, 14 June 2011

Thanks for the article. You are right, of course.

The real situation is that, so far, the numbers of QR interactions are tiny.
Not one Case Study has emerged that shows that implementing QR is worth the effort. That's a challenge BTW... you QR fanboy/girls.

If my clients want to do it, I say go ahead... it's free (i.e. don't use proprietry tech) but don't expect more than a handful of scans.

All the so called "buzz" around this is all traceable back to people who have invested in QR and not from actual consumers.

Plus - it'll die because of image recognition/AR etc.... which means I don't have stick an ugly square anywhere.

Get out while you can!

Posted by David Robertson, 1 August 2011

Here's another thought: QR Codes will 'take off' once there is an overwhelming, unique, compelling reason to access something (content) on the other side that makes it worth the hassle and/or time.

Who's going to lift a finger to do something that's not helpful, engaging, relevant or fun? People don't necessarily jump at the chance to access a standard web site on a cell phone (same stuff, but just smaller). Most content that I have seen launched by existing QR codes are a yawn. A few experiences have been fun.

If the QR Code allowed customers to access unique content such as the examples below, then there would be more interest in using QR Codes as a tool:

Examples:
- Video of a local car dealer telling a brief story of how the Mini Cooper was designed.
- Video clip highlight of the band who is playing this Thursday night at Iva Lee's restaurant.
- A personal and brief talk by a local sales rep that demonstrates, value (helpful info), likability, caring for customers needs and likability.
- Enter a Monster (energy drink) contest to win passes to hang with Kyle Loza his crew at the XGames.

But, if the QR code is going to take a customer to content that leaves them confused, bored and let down, then marketers have ruined a perfectly good tool (QR Codes) by being lazy and a lack of creative effort.

Lastly, there has to be a need to view or access content while the customer is out of the home or away from their computer. An example of this is accessing a short informational video at a retail store to learn about a new product (ie Dyson vacuum cleaner) that easily educates the customer about the newest compelling features of the product. If a customer receives a bill insert featuring a QR code on it, and reads the bill insert while they are in front of their computer, then they are unlikely to view the QR content on the phone. Instead, they are more likely to access the content from the computer.

It will be exciting to see how things continue to evolve. In the meantime, be sure to use this tool (QR Codes) in a useful, customer-focused, intriguing manner.

Happy hunting.

Respectively,

David
http://twitter.com/davidarobertson

Posted by Anita Webster-Smith, 1 August 2011

QR codes have never taken off in Australia. We used them for years on all our large national print and outdoor advertising with minimal uptake. I think it definitely has a lot to do with people not sure what they are or meant to do with them. Plus it's a lot easier, as Martin said, to simply put in the URL. Maybe overtime as phone technology gets smarter, people are educated and such technology becomes second nature, like typing in a URL or Googling information, that QR codes or something similar will take off.

Posted by Art Fernandez, 1 August 2011

Honestly, the barrier to entry that I see for QR codes really taking off in North America with mobile users is that they have to proactively think to acquire/activate a mobile application (assuming they are on a smart phone) and then go to the trouble of then using it to scan the QR. User behavior in the US, in my opinion, is just different than it is in Asia. Dennis Crowley of foursquare was quoted as saying that even with his current app, it takes 25 seconds to check in anywhere...that's 25 seconds to long. His view is that better GPS chips and also the adoption of NFC will make checking as second nature as turning on or off the vibrate button on your ringer that it will just happen. That is where we are at, and with NFC hitting phones in the next 8 - 10 months, I think QR codes have arrived too late to really see wide adoption and more importantly high-user conversion rates.

Posted by David Robertson, 1 August 2011

Here's another thought: QR Codes will 'take off' once there is an overwhelming, unique, compelling reason to access something (content) on the other side that makes it worth the hassle and/or time.

Who's going to lift a finger to do something that's not helpful, engaging, relevant or fun? People don't necessarily jump at the chance to access a standard web site on a cell phone (same stuff, but just smaller). Most content that I have seen launched by existing QR codes are a yawn. A few experiences have been fun.

If the QR Code allowed customers to access unique content such as the examples below, then there would be more interest in using QR Codes as a tool:

Examples:
* Video of a local car dealer telling a brief story of how the Mini Cooper was designed.

* Video clip highlight of the band who is playing this Thursday night at Iva Lee's restaurant.

* A personal, brief talk by a sales rep that demonstrates, value (helpful info), likability, and caring for his customers' needs.

* Enter a Monster (energy drink) contest to win passes to hang with Kyle Loza his crew at the XGames.

But, if the QR code is going to take a customer to content that leaves them confused, bored and let down, then marketers have ruined a perfectly good tool (QR Codes) by being lazy and a lack of creative effort.

Lastly, there has to be a need to view or access content while the customer is out of the home or away from their home computer. For example while I was shopping for a new vacuum cleaner, it would have been helpful to have very helpful to have accessed a short informational video while at the retail store to have been educated about the newest compelling features of the model I was interested in. However, if a person receives a bill insert featuring a QR code, and reviews the bill insert while they are in front of their computer, then they are unlikely to view the QR content on the their phone. Instead, they are more likely to access the content from the computer; so, this would be a poor use of a QR code.

It will be exciting to see how things continue to evolve. In the meantime, be sure to use this tool (QR Codes) in a useful, customer-focused, intriguing manner.

Happy hunting.

Respectively,

David
http://twitter.com/davidarobertson

Posted by Matt Harris, 1 August 2011

I totally agree with Art, the user behaviour and experience of QR codes just isn't good enough.

We've just developed a new app/ platform called Mobile Explorer (shameless plug here : www.mobile-explorer.co.uk) which acts as a digital tour guide for outdoor spaces. Using GPS the app automatically triggers off content and keeps the content in-app.

With QR codes, as Art says you need to open up your QR reader, scan the code and then this triggers off another app or browser to load the content, you then have to repeat this process for the next code etc. it's all too clunky. It's why we went down the road we did with GPS. Of course with NFC this opens up another protocol to trigger information which is why I believe GPS for outdoors and NFC for indoors is a better option (in our scenario anyway). But that's easy, its just another trigger mechanism rather than requiring

Posted by Tom hughes, 7 August 2011

@Thomas - an interesting article with a ridiculous title aimed at attracting the attention of the misinformed.

QR codes are not dead. The reason QR still trumps all the other technology is that it's *the* standard that everyone has installed on their phones. MS tags need the MS tag reader, NFC functionality is on very few phones at present and Layar? - I don't know a single person that actually uses that app. QR codes can be read by thousands of different devices, THAT is what makes them THE method to use.

In the past year we've seen QR codes coming to life more and more, driven by increased smart-phone penetration. That trend will continue.

The notion that NFC will wipe out QR codes is also flawed. At the moment, when "the NFC" guru arrives on stage and demonstrates the pain of scanning a QR code and then pulls out the NFC tag and his specialist NFC phone prepared with NFC "on", people are impressed. However, by the time NFC readers are on everyone's phones, QR code readers may well be in all phone operating systems as standard. At that point, the difference between the QR and NFC interaction is whether you want to hold you camera towards it or physically touch it - there's little difference. With NFC, you'll turn "NFC on", with a QR code, you'll hit the "QR scan" button. NFC will be commonly used in mobile payments and billboard advertising (and similar) but in magazine adverts and things like business cards (something our service works with), QR codes win hands down because of the zero cost of adding them into the production process.

Posted by John Lynch, 15 August 2011

May have to eat my words, - In a sign of growth for the technology, some 14 million people in the U.S. used a QR code in June, according to a new report.

Those people, representing 6.2% of the total mobile audience in the U.S., scanned a QR or bar code on their mobile device, comScore estimates. The report also showed that QR code users are more likely to be male (60.5%), between the ages of 18 to 34 (53.4%) and have a household income in excess of $100,000 (36.1%)

Magazines and newspapers are the preferred vehicle for scanning QR codes (49.4%), followed by product packaging, (34.3%). The preferred place to scan was at home (58%) and then retail stores (39.4%).

ComScores report was based on a sample of 14,452 adults. The study was the first time comScore measured QR code use.

Article from - http://mashable.com/2011/08/12/qr-codes-study-14-million-users/"

Posted by Dean Collins , 16 August 2011

Article about "Free versus indirect QR codes" http://bit.ly/lgQSnG - wow talk about "stretching" the facts

Posted by Thomas Hormaza ( info@MobiABC.Com), 16 August 2011

Yes. http://www.fastcompany.com/1771451/augmented-reality-kills-the-qr-code-star

Posted by Nicolas Holzherr, 16 August 2011

@Thomas - an interesting article with a ridiculous title aimed at attracting the attention of the misinformed.

QR codes are NOTdead. The reason QR still trumps all the other technology is that it's *the* standard that everyone has installed on their phones. MS tags need the MS tag reader, NFC functionality is on very few phones at present and Layar? - I don't know a single person that actually uses that app. QR codes can be read by thousands of different devices, THAT is what makes them THE method to use.

In the past year we've seen QR codes coming to life more and more, driven by increased smart-phone penetration. That trend will continue.

The notion that NFC will wipe out QR codes is also flawed. At the moment, when "the NFC" guru arrives on stage and demonstrates the pain of scanning a QR code and then pulls out the NFC tag and his specialist NFC phone prepared with NFC "on", people are impressed. However, by the time NFC readers are on everyone's phones, QR code readers may well be in all phone operating systems as standard. At that point, the difference between the QR and NFC interaction is whether you want to hold you camera towards it or physically touch it - there's little difference. With NFC, you'll turn "NFC on", with a QR code, you'll hit the "QR scan" button. NFC will be commonly used in mobile payments and billboard advertising (and similar) but in magazine adverts and things like business cards (something our service works with), QR codes win hands down because of

Posted by Alexander Lawrence , 16 August 2011

@Dean - you're right, there was some discussion about this a short time ago. Since then I've been... not really looking out for them but noticing them when I see them. It's astonishing quite how prevalent they are - on adverts, papers, posters, shops; I've also seen them on the front cover of reports etc.

Just yesterday there was a piece in the news about sponsors' QR codes being put on the shorts of some volleyball players, which suggests that to some extent the readability need not be the sole criterion for marketing success - they certainly got a lot of PR mileage from doing this.

So... no, QR isn't dead, I'd say; there's a widespread movement for it, but it's not very visible - just like the "people who really like parsnip" conspiracy.

Posted by Richard Schrand, MBA, 31 January 2012

I don't see Microsoft as the powerhouse it used to be. QR codes made much more of an inroad than Tag codes did, but Google....that's another matter. Right now, NFC is good for bill payment and other interactions, although with recent information on what type of filth lives on people's cell phones, not the least of which is fecal matter, I'm really reticent about doing any type of communication where my phone/device has to come in contact with someone else's device(s). QR codes are being misused in many cases and it's up to the marketers and advertisers to have the forsight to make them more interesting the general public. I think Lowe's has utilized them extremely well in their garden centers and if you use them for value-added benefit within a business establishment, I can see QR codes and NFC living very comfortably together.

Posted by Robert Kinsella , 8 February 2012

Until Smartphones are shipped with BUilt in QR readers i cannot see this being adopted my the masses. I love the concept and can see its use to engage. Unfortunately the 2 QR readers i have downloaded work only intermittently.

Posted by Michael, 6 March 2012

Business want more from just a two dimensional QR code. They want to be able to build real and live databases behind everything about their business by having consumers OPT in for information and or promotions, e.g sms; ytag@yworld to 0427800800 and you will see what i mean.


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